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👉Active Ingredient: Tranexamic acid.

Cyklokapron (Tranexamic acid) is used for short-term control of bleeding in hemophiliacs, including dental extraction procedures.


Other names for this medication:
Acide tranexamique, Acido tranexamico, Acidum tranexamicum, Amchafibrin, Anvitoff, Asamnex, Azeptil, Ciclokapron, Cyklo-f, Cyklonova, Ditranex, Espercil, Ethinex, Exacyl, Examic, Hemlon, Hemotran, Hemotrex, Hemsamic, Hexakapron, Hexamic, Hexatron, Intermic, Kalnex, Keisamine, Lunex, Lysteda, Medisamin, Nexa, Nexitra, Nicolda, Plasminex, Pletasmin, Ranobis, Rikavarin, Ronex, Spotof, Tacid, Tracapmin, Tranarest, Trand, Tranex, Tranexamsyra, Tranexid, Tranon, Transabon, Transamin, Transamine, Transcam, Tranxa, Traxyl, Trexam, Ugurol, Vanarin top, Vasolamin, Xamic.

👉Pharmacotherapeutic group

Fibrinolysis inhibitors

👉Pharmacological properties
Antifibrinolytic, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory. Competitively inhibits plasminogen activator, in higher concentrations binds plasmin. Extends thrombin time. It inhibits the formation of kinins and other peptides involved in inflammatory and allergic reactions. When ingestion absorbed 30-50% of the dose. The maximum concentration is reached 3 hours after administration. The initial volume of distribution – 9-12 liters. Easily passes through histohematogenous barriers, including BBB, placental. Concentration in cerebrospinal fluid is 1/10 of plasma. It is found in seminal fluid, where it inhibits fibrinolytic activity, but does not affect sperm migration. The insignificant part undergoes biotransformation. The main route of excretion is glomerular filtration. Excreted with urine. Antifibrinolytic concentration in various tissues is maintained for 17 hours, in plasma – up to 7-8 hours.

👉Indications for use Cyklokapron
Bleeding due to increased general and local fibrinolysis (treatment and prevention): hemophilia, hemorrhagic complications of fibrinolytic therapy, thrombocytopenic purpura, aplastic anemia, leukemia, bleeding during surgery and in the postoperative period, uterine during childbirth, pulmonary, nasal, gastrointestinal, meno- and metrorrhagia, gross hematuria, caused by bleeding from the lower urinary tract; aphthous stomatitis, tonsillitis, laryngopharyngitis, hereditary angioedema, eczema, allergic dermatitis, urticaria, drug and toxic rash.

👉Contraindications
Hypersensitivity, subarachnoid hemorrhage, renal failure, thrombophilic conditions (deep vein thrombosis, thromboembolic syndrome, myocardial infarction), impaired color vision, pregnancy.

👉Cautions when using
In case of renal insufficiency (depending on the degree of increase in serum creatinine), the dose and frequency of administration is reduced. During and after treatment for several days, an ophthalmologist should be observed with a check of acuity, margins and color vision, and examination of the fundus. With caution used in combination with tissue hemostatic drugs, hemocoagulase (in large doses), heparin. When treating hematuria of renal genesis, the risk of mechanical anuria increases as a result of a clot in the urethra.

👉Interaction with drugs
Incompatible with urokinase, noradrenaline bitartrate, desoxyepinephrine hydrochloride, metarmine bitartrate, dipyridamole, diazepam. In a solution, tranexamic acid reacts (cannot be mixed) with antibiotics (benzylpenicillin, tetracyclines), blood proteins.

👉Side effects
Dyspeptic phenomena (anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), dizziness, weakness, drowsiness, tachycardia, chest pain, hypotension (with rapid on / in the introduction), impaired color vision, skin allergic reactions.

👉Application and dosage

▫ Inside, regardless of the meal – 250-500 mg 3-4 times a day.

▫ With profuse uterine bleeding – 1-1.5 g 3-4 times a day for 3-4 days.

▫ With repeated nasal bleeding – 1 g 3 times a day for 7 days.

▫ After surgery, cervix conization – 1.5 g 3 times a day for 12-14 days.

▫ Patients with coagulopathy, before extraction of the tooth – at 25 mg / kg 3-4 times a day, starting 1 day before the upcoming surgery and continuing for 6-8 days after.

▫ For hereditary angioedema, by mouth, 1-1.5 g 2-3 times a day (constantly or intermittently, depending on the presence of prodromal symptoms).

▫ In case of violation of the excretory function of the kidneys, correction of the dosage regimen is necessary: ​​when the concentration of creatinine in the blood is 120-250 μmol / l, 15 mg / kg 2 times a day; 250-500 µmol / l – in the same single dose 1 time per day; more than 500 µmol / l – 7.5 mg / kg 1 time per day.

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Active Ingredient: Pantoprazole.

Other names for this medication:
Aciban, Acipan, Anagastra, Anesteloc, Anulacid, Apazol, Apton, Caprol, Ciproton, Contix, Contracid, Controloc, Cool pan, Digene, Eupanol, Eupantol, Fulpan, Gastromax, Gastroprozal, Gastrowell, Hasanloc, Inipomp, Kuppam, Leminter, Loxid, Lupipan, Natrii pantoprazolum, Newpan, Noacid, Nolpaza, Normocid, Oritop, Ozepran, Pacid, Palio, Panbloc, Pandev, Pandon, Pangest, Panloc, Panopaz, Panpac, Panpot, Panpra, Panprabene, Panpro, Panprozole, Pansa, Pansafe, Pansec, Pantabol, Pantac, Pantacid, Pantact, Pantagon, Pantaz, Pantecta, Panthec, Pantid, Pantin, Pantip, Pantium, Panto, Panto basics, Panto-byk, Pantobex, Pantoc, Pantocal, Pantocalm, Pantocar, Pantocas, Pantocid, Pantocip, Pantodac, Pantodar, Pantofin, Pantogamma, Pantogen, Pantoloc, Pantolup, Pantonis, Pantonix, Pantop, Pantopan, Pantopaz, Pantopep, Pantopra, Pantoprazol, Pantoprazolum, Pantoprem, Pantor, Pantorc, Pantosec, Pantosil, Pantotab, Pantozol, Pantozole, Pantpas, Pantra, Pantrafar, Pantry, Pantul, Pantus, Panum, Panz, Panzo, Panzol, Penkool, Penta, Pentagon, Pentalink, Pentastar, Pentium, Pentozed, Pents, Pepcinova, Pepmark, Peptac, Peptazol, Pepticool, Pepzol, Pms-pantoprazole, Pole, Prasocid, Prazocid, Prazolan, Prazosan, Prazotel, Progen, Proloc, Prolus-dsr, Propanta, Propanz, Protin-p, Protium, Protonex, Protonil, Pulcet, Razon, Regad, Rifun, Segregam, Singastril, Sipar, Sunpraz, Supracam, Tecta, Tifizol, Tonval, Topan, Topra, Topraz, Topzole, Tropaz, Trupan, Ugarpan, Ulcemex, Ulcepraz, Ulcoreks, Ulcotenal, Ulrid, Unigastrozol, Zacpac, Zanpan, Zepoxin, Zimpax, Zipant, Zipantola, Ziprol, Zolpanz, Zoltex, Zovanta, Zovanta-40, Zurcal, Zurcale, Zurcazol.

Composition

1 tablet drug Pantoprazole contains 20 mg of the active substance of the same name.
Additional components: sucrose, sodium carbonate, talc, mannitates, silica, calcium stearate, polyethylene glycol, hypromellose, triethyl citrate, methacrylate copolymer, titanium dioxide, iron oxide, Opacode black.

Pharmachologic effect
Antiulcer action.

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics

Pharmacodynamics
Suppresses products in the stomach of hydrochloric acid by the action of a proton pump on gastric cells. The active substance is transformed into the active form in the channels of the walls of the parietal cells and blocks the enzyme H-K-ATP-azu, that is, at the final stage of the synthesis of hydrochloric acid. In most patients, relief of symptoms occurs after 2 weeks of therapy. Like other proton pump blockers and H2-type receptors, drug therapy causes a decrease in acidity and an increase in gastrin content.

Pharmacokinetics
Pantoprazole is actively absorbed, the highest concentration in the blood is achieved after a single dose. On average, the highest concentration in the blood occurs 2.5 hours after application.

⌚The half-life is about an hour. There have been a number of cases of delayed withdrawal.

Reaction with plasma proteins approaches 98%. The original drug is almost completely transformed in the liver.

The kidneys excrete about 80% of the metabolites, the rest is excreted in the feces. The main metabolite is desmethyl-pantoprazole, its half-life is approximately 1.5 hours.

Indications for use

☛Zollinger-Ellison syndrome;
☛peptic ulcer in the acute phase;
☛H.pylori eradication;
☛reflux esophagitis.

Contraindications

☛hypersensitivity to the drug;
☛hepatitis;
☛cirrhosis, complicated by severe liver failure.

Side effects

Reactions from the digestive system: nausea, diarrhea, increased appetite, dry mouth, vomiting, belching, flatulence, constipation, gastrointestinal carcinoma, abdominal pain, increased transaminases.
Reactions from nervous activity and sense organs: drowsiness, headache, dizziness, asthenia, insomnia, depression, nervousness, tremor, photophobia, paresthesias, tinnitus, visual disturbances.
Reactions from the urinogenital sphere: edema, hematuria, impotence.
Skin reactions: alopecia, exfoliative dermatitis, acne.
Allergic reactions: rash, urticaria, angioedema, pruritus.
Other reactions: eosinophilia, hyperglycemia, myalgia, hyperlipoproteinemia, fever, hypercholesterolemia.

Instructions for use Pantoprazole (method and dosage)

Pantoprazole tablets must not be chewed or broken, they must be swallowed whole, taken before meals and washed down with water.

In the treatment of mild reflux disease and associated symptoms (acid regurgitation, heartburn, pain when swallowing) the recommended initial dose is 20 mg per day. Improvement is achieved after about 2-4 weeks, for the treatment of esophagitis, which appeared on the background of the disease usually need monthly therapy. If the specified time period is insufficient, recovery occurs within the next month. Recurrence of the disease is controlled by consuming 20 mg of Pantoprazole once a day, if necessary. If acceptable symptom control cannot be maintained in this way, it is allowed to consider switching to permanent therapy.

With prolonged treatment of reflux esophagitis, a maintenance dosage of 20 mg per day is recommended. In case of frequent relapses, the dosage is increased to 40 mg per day. After stopping the symptoms of relapse, the dosage can again be reduced to 20 mg per day.

For the prevention of peptic ulcer disease induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the recommended dosage for people with risk factors is 20 mg of the drug per day.

In the elderly and patients with kidney failure, the daily dosage of Pantoprazole should not be higher than 40 mg.

Patients with severe liver failure should not exceed the dosage of Pantoprazole 20 mg per day. These patients during the period of therapy should be determined by the content of liver enzymes. If their concentration begins to increase, pantoprazole therapy must be canceled.

Overdose
Cases of overdose should be treated according to the standard practice of treatment of toxic conditions.

Interaction
The drug can reduce the absorption of agents whose bioavailability correlates with pH (for example, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Atazanavir).

The use of proton pump blockers is prohibited during treatment with Atazanavir.

The drug is metabolized in the liver under the influence of cytochrome P450, however, significant interactions with Diazepam, Carbamazipyrin, Caffeine, Diclofenac, ethanol, Digoxin, Glibenclamide, Naproxen, Metoprolol, Nifedipine, Piroksikam, Teofillin, a draphotoxorset, a teofillin, a headset, a tefillin, a draped body, a teofillin, a draped body, a teofillin, a tefillino, a tefillinom, a tefillinom, a tefillinom, a tefillinom, a tefillinom, a tefillinom, a tefillinom, tefillinom, tefillinoma

If the patient uses coumarin anticoagulants, it is recommended to measure the prothrombin period and the INR value during and after pantoprazole treatment.

Storage conditions
Keep out of the reach of children. Store at temperatures up to 25 degrees.

Shelf life
3 years.

Special instructions
Persons with severe liver failure in the treatment with pantoprazole are recommended to regularly measure the content of liver enzymes. In case of an increase in the level of liver enzymes, therapy should be discontinued. The use of Pantoprazole 20 mg tablets to prevent the appearance of gastric and duodenal ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is indicated for patients who need long-term use of NSAIDs and have an increased risk of developing complications from the digestive system.

With low acidity, the number of bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract, as a rule, grows. Therefore, therapy with drugs that reduce acidity, can lead to a weak increase in the risk of gastrointestinal infections.

Pantoprazole is able to lower the absorption of vitamin B12 as a result of hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria.

Before treatment, it is necessary to exclude the presence of malignant tumors of the esophagus or stomach, since treatment with Pantoprazole may mask the symptoms of such diseases and lead to their late diagnosis.

For children
Not applicable in children under 12 years.

During pregnancy and lactation
The drug is prohibited to use during lactation.

Use during pregnancy is possible only under strict indications.

Reviews
Reviews of the drug characterize it as an effective and inexpensive drug for the treatment of peptic ulcer and GERD. Side effects occur infrequently, while respecting the reception regimen.

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