ALLERGY FOR ALCOHOL: HOW TO MANAGE AND HOW TO TREAT.
Sensitization (increased sensitivity of the body) can be on various substances and compounds. Allergies to alcohol also belong to the category of such disorders. Moreover, hypersensitivity may develop not just on some kind of alcoholic drink, but on its individual components. Symptoms of such an allergy are similar to signs of other types of allergic reactions. Diagnosis is sometimes difficult due to a number of nuances that will be indicated in this article, as well as due to the fact that patients may hide the fact that they drink alcohol – but special tests will help establish an accurate diagnosis. The principles of treatment – as with other types of allergies.
1.REASONS AND DEVELOPMENT OF PATHOLOGY
The causes of the described pathology depend on the type of allergic reaction that developed with the entry of alcohol into the body. Such reactions can be:
With the development of a true allergic reaction, the body reacts to protein components that are:
A very small amount (residue) of intermediate components of alcohol production is enough to provoke an allergic reaction in humans when they take an alcoholic drink.
Such components remain when:
In the latter case, moonshine (home-made vodka), which contains a large number of fusel oils, can cause, among other negative consequences (irritation of the stomach and intestines, damage to the pancreas), an allergic reaction. Often such consequences are summarized, but since the allergy is in some cases unexpressed, its manifestations may not be noticed, in a hurry to stop the signs of acute alcohol intoxication.
A true allergic reaction when taking alcohol occurs less frequently than pseudo-allergy. She, in turn, can develop as a reaction:
Immediate hypersensitivity occurs when antibodies are activated, structures whose function is to neutralize antigens (foreign proteins). Such a reaction develops literally a few minutes or hours after drinking. The main tissue and cellular changes in this case are:
In the late stage of immediate hypersensitivity, cells of the immune system are activated – eosinophils and neutrophils, therefore, the presence of this stage can be determined by laboratory analysis.
Slow-type hypersensitivity develops due to the interaction of a foreign protein-antigen (it is an allergen in this case) with macrophages (“devourer” cells) and some types of lymphocytes (they are also part of the immune system). An allergic reaction of a hypersensitive type develops, as a rule, after 24-72 hours from the moment the allergen (alcohol) enters the body. The main tissue and cellular disorders that are observed are:
Two other known varieties of allergic reactions (anaphylactic and cytotoxic) do not occur with alcohol allergies.
What specific components cause a true allergic reaction to alcohol? These are protein inclusions of plant origin:
As a rule, when a true allergic reaction to alcohol occurs, class E immunoglobulins (IgE) are involved, less often – class G.
The reaction of the pseudotype with an allergy to alcoholic beverages manifests itself more often than true. It is launched in response to additional substances that are used in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages:
In 80-85% of all cases, pseudo-type allergy provocateurs are additives used in the production of alcoholic beverages to give them an original taste.
In the reaction of the pseudotype, antibodies do not attack antigens, and the mechanism of inflammatory damage is immediately triggered. But it is noted that some true allergens can also provoke a pseudo-allergy to alcohol – in total there is an increased allergic effect, a person who has not previously complained about allergic manifestations can suffer quite the same. One of the most powerful tissue allergy provocateurs is histamine.
As a rule, it is found in alcoholic beverages such as:
Often, allergens that are found in an alcoholic product, in themselves, provoke the development of a not very strong reaction. But in a drink may be present substances that cause an increased release of histamine into the blood, thereby enhancing the allergic reaction. They are called histaminolibrators.
The strongest of them are:
In addition, such provocative products are found in food that a person can take after taking a portion of alcohol (bite it).
Such nuances should be considered when studying the causes and development of the mechanism of allergy to the same type of alcoholic drink in different people. Other factors that contribute to the development of alcohol allergy are also highlighted.
In the latter case, it is:
In addition, an allergic reaction to alcohol can form due to the use of some components in its production – these are:
2.SYMPTOMS OF ALLERGY ON ALCOHOL
The manifestations of an allergy to alcohol can be very different – while the clinical picture depends on factors such as:
The clinical picture, which manifests the described pathology, with all its diversity, is almost the same with true and false allergies.
Manifestations of an allergy to alcohol are:
Most often, an allergy to alcohol is manifested by skin symptoms.
Signs of the described pathology are:
As a rule, the rash is similar to the one that occurs with urticaria – these are vesicles with the following characteristics:
Pseudo-allergy to alcohol is manifested by a richer clinical picture:
Respiratory symptoms in an allergy to alcohol are similar to those that occur when:
In the first case, this is usually:
The clinical picture of alcohol allergy, reminiscent of bronchial asthma, is:
Symptoms of an allergy to alcohol, reminiscent of that in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, are:
Symptoms of anaphylactoid type with allergies to
The clinical picture of pseudo-allergy to alcohol may be similar to a vegetative-vascular type reaction with symptoms such as:
Diagnosing an allergy to alcohol can be difficult – such a violation often manifests itself in a clinical picture, the signs of which may resemble a non-allergic pathology. This is especially pronounced when exposed to the body of various components of alcohol – factors that provoke an allergic reaction. In addition, manifestations of an allergy to alcohol can be inexpressive against the background of other disorders associated with its ingestion into the body – namely:
The main difficulties of diagnosis are to identify among the many components of alcohol the same allergen that provoked the reaction of the body.
Based on this, any information will be useful – patient complaints, details of the medical history (history) of the disease, results of additional research methods (physical, instrumental, laboratory).
When studying the medical history of the disease, the following nuances should be clarified:
The results of a physical examination can be very different – they depend on the type of allergy to alcohol (skin, respiratory and so on). In this case, the following can be detected:
It can also be determined:
Instrumental methods of research are used to make sure that the symptoms of organs, systems of organs and tissues did not appear because of their somatic lesions, but as a result of an allergic reaction to alcohol. In order to narrow the range of instrumental methods, in some cases, consultation of related specialists is necessary. In general, in the diagnosis of alcohol allergy, research methods such as:
From laboratory research methods in the diagnosis of alcohol allergies are involved:
Differential (distinctive) diagnosis of alcohol allergy is carried out, as a rule, with such diseases and pathological conditions as:
The main complication of an allergy to alcohol is anaphylactoid reactions – a pronounced reaction of the body to alcohol in the form of a violation of its general condition.
Allergy treatment for alcohol is conservative. The basis of therapy is the following:
If you are allergic to alcohol, the ban applies to alcoholic beverages of any strength and their derivatives (cocktails, punches, mulled wine, etc.), as well as to some products that may contain alcohol – in particular, sweets (like “Drunk Cherry”).
The basis of dietary nutrition is the restriction of consumption:
Drug therapy is practiced with the ineffectiveness of the above treatment methods. Assigned:
Measures to prevent the occurrence of the described pathology are:
The prognosis for an allergy to alcohol is different, but generally rather favorable. Timely detection of this pathological condition and adequate appointments help to quickly stop it. The forecast worsens when:
It should be borne in mind that even after a successful stopping of an allergic reaction, it can reoccur when it comes back into contact with an allergen (alcohol).