Gastritis symptoms and treatment in adults.
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_ Types and forms of gastritis
_ Causes of gastritis
_ Symptoms of gastritis in adults
_ Diagnosis of gastritis
_ Treatment of gastritis in adults
_ Prevention of gastritis
Gastritis in adults is the most common and common pathology of the digestive system. Almost every second resident of the country suffers from this disease. Gastritis is called inflammation of the gastric mucosa, which leads to disruption of the organ and a number of complications in the absence of timely treatment.
Types and forms of gastritis
Depending on the form of the inflammatory process, gastritis in adults can be acute or chronic, depending on the level of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, there are:
_ gastritis with low acidity;
_ with normal acidity;
_ with high acidity.
Depending on the cause of origin:
_ infectious – type B associated with Helicobacter pylori;
_ non-infectious in nature – type A, autoimmune associated with a hereditary predisposition.
Causes of gastritis
Violation of the acidity level of gastric juice is the basis of pathogenesis in the development of the inflammatory process of the stomach. Predisposing factors to a change in the pH of the gastric contents and the development of gastritis against this background are:
_ abuse of spices, vinegar, fried and greasy foods;
_ the predominance of fats and carbohydrates in the diet;
_ poisoning by substandard food products;
_ concomitant diseases of the gallbladder or pancreas, in which bile and acids are thrown into the stomach and irritate its mucous membranes;
_ poisoning with salts of heavy metals;
uncontrolled use of drugs that aggressively affect the gastric mucosa;
_ accidental ingestion of chemicals – acids or alkalis;
_ chronic stress;
_ hormonal imbalance in the body;
_ alcohol abuse.
Short-term uncharacteristic effect of any factors on the digestive process leads to irritation of the mucous membranes of the stomach and the development of acute inflammation of the following nature:
_ catarrhal – most often occurs against the background of malnutrition or food poisoning;
_ fibrinous – develops as a result of poisoning with salts of heavy metals;
_ necrotic – develops when acid or alkali enters the mucous membranes;
_ phlegmonous – develops against a background of damage to the walls of the stomach, often occurs after partial resection of the stomach.
Untreated gastritis progresses rapidly, becomes chronic, complicated by peptic ulcer disease and tends to malignancy – degeneration into gastric cancer.
Symptoms of gastritis in adults
The main signs of inflammation of the gastric mucosa are:
_ severity and pain in the epigastric region, aggravated after eating;
_ nausea, vomiting;
_ stool disorders – diarrhea or constipation.
Depending on the acidity level of the gastric juice, the clinical signs of mogt may vary slightly.
With gastritis with a high level of acidity, the patient has the following symptoms:
_ prolonged pain in the epigastric region, worse on an empty stomach and subsiding after eating;
_ belching sour;
Gastritis with a low level of acidity in a patient causes the following symptoms:
_ Bad taste in the mouth;
_ belching with a rotten egg;
_ pain in the stomach, aggravated after eating;
_ constant rumbling in the stomach, heaviness after eating;
_ constipation, flatulence;
_ nausea and vomiting in the morning;
_ Bad breath, which is a sign of fermentation and rot in the stomach.
Acute gastritis with a normal level of acidity is characterized by the appearance of the following symptoms:
_ constant pain in the solar plexus, worse or worse after eating;
_ heaviness in the stomach;
_ nausea, periodic vomiting;
_ belching, hiccups, the appearance of a bitter and unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth;
_ dizziness, headaches, weakness, palpitations;
_ increased salivation;
_ Pain around the navel, tendency to constipation or diarrhea.
In the absence of adequate therapy, acute gastritis quickly becomes a chronic form of the course with frequent relapses of the disease. In chronic gastritis, recurrence is inherent in seasonality, as a rule, inflammation worsens in the fall and spring.
Chronic gastritis in an adult: clinical signs
In the phase of remission, the patient sometimes experiences discomfort and discomfort after eating – heartburn, heaviness, nausea, bloating, a feeling of fullness of the stomach. During an exacerbation of the disease, there are signs of acute gastritis. The insidiousness of the chronic inflammatory process is that with each exacerbation in the structure of the tissues of the stomach, destructive changes and scars are formed, which in the future can provoke the development of gastric bleeding.
Diagnosis of gastritis
If the described clinical symptoms appear, the patient is advised to consult a gastroenterologist. Differential diagnosis of gastritis from other inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract is carried out by the following methods:
_ FGDS (fibrogastroduodenoscopy) – the study requires some preparation. A tube equipped with an optical system at the end is inserted through the patient’s mouth. The doctor can examine in detail the condition of the mucous membranes of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. If necessary, it is possible to take biopsy material from pathological modified sites.
_ pH-metry – a study that allows you to determine the acidity level of gastric juice.
_ Blood tests to determine Helicobacter bacteria;
_ Ultrasound of the organs of the abdominal cavity (pancreas, gall bladder, liver, spleen) – sometimes these symptoms can signal inflammation of the digestive tract, and not just the stomach.
Treatment of gastritis in adults
The main aspect of the successful treatment of gastritis in adults is diet therapy along with medications.
Diet for gastritis
With exacerbation of gastritis, the patient is recommended table number 1. The following are excluded from the diet:
_ coffee, strong black tea, chocolate, cocoa;
_ pastry, pastries, cakes;
_ goose, duck;
_ pork, lamb;
_ fish of fatty varieties (mackerel, herring, salmon, trout);
_ sausages, canned goods;
_ spices, vinegar;
_ barley, wheat porridge, millet;
_ fresh vegetables and fruits – tomatoes, onions, garlic, radishes, sour apples, cherries;
_ rye bread and bran bread;
_ fat sour cream, cream.
The diet consists of the following products:
_ soups and borscht on vegetable broth;
_ mashed potatoes with a minimal addition of oil (better than vegetable);
_ jelly (berry, milk);
_ porridge (buckwheat, rice, oatmeal);
_ yesterday’s white bread;
_ pastille, marshmallows, honey;
_ poultry – chicken, turkey without skin and fat;
beef, rabbit, lean pork without fat.
Drug treatment for gastritis
With gastritis, the patient is shown complex treatment, which includes the following groups of drugs:
_ proton pump blockers;
_ astringent and enveloping – bismuth nitrate.
With the differentiation of gastritis caused by the bacterium Helicobacter, a broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment course is prescribed along with Metronidazole according to a prescribed individual scheme.
Since gastritis is often accompanied by digestive disorders and malfunctioning of the intestines, enzymatic preparations and probiotics are prescribed in parallel with the patient.
In order to avoid the development of gastritis, simple rules should be followed:
_ Eat fully, preferably at the same time – categorically it is not recommended to skip meals;
_ quit drinking alcohol and smoking;
_ take medications only as prescribed by the doctor, strictly following the instructions and observing the dosage;
_ while eating, chew slowly, carefully chopping the pieces;
_ timely treat carious teeth – tooth decay leads to insufficiently thorough grinding of food in the oral cavity, resulting in an increased risk of gastritis;
_ limit the use of sausages, spices, vinegar, spicy and fried foods.
Important! If there are signs of gastritis, do not try to treat it yourself, since the treatment of various forms of the disease and acid levels is fundamentally different from each other. Self-medication often leads to chronicity of the pathological process and complications in the form of peptic ulcer and perforation of the organ.