POLLINOSIS IN PREGNANCY: WHAT TO TREAT, INFLUENCE ON THE FETUS.
The spring and summer period for women prone to allergies and the formation of hay fever is not an easy time. And if this is also the expectant mother, especially in the early stages of pregnancy, the situation is even more complicated. Firstly, reactions can be more vivid, widespread and pronounced. Secondly, it is forbidden to use most of the usual antihistamines. What to do in such a situation, will hay fever become a contraindication for conceiving and bearing the fetus? Is it possible to avoid seizures or reduce their frequency?
SEASONAL ALLERGY IN PREGNANCY
Generally speaking, allergies are excessive and violent reactions of the immune system to certain environmental factors that acquire the character of allergens for the body. This is a kind of malfunction of the body, in which a completely harmless substance, such as plant pollen during hay fever, is perceived aggressively by the body, triggering the stimulation of immune cells to synthesize specific reactin antibodies that are designed to bind the incoming allergen.
But simultaneously with the binding of the allergen and the formation of the immune complex, the body’s own tissues are damaged, the synthesis of allergy mediators is launched – special substances with high biological activity that provoke all unpleasant allergic reactions. Basophils and mast cells in tissues that are irritated by allergies are responsible for the release of these substances. If the allergen re-enters the body, immune reactions are triggered and the first portions of histamine, serotonin begin to be released almost instantly and inflammatory reactions form. It is due to them that a woman feels itching and burning, her skin turns red and swollen, a malaise occurs, she lays her nose.
INFLUENCE OF POLLINOSIS ON PREGNANCY
Against the background of pregnancy, changes in the immune system that are initiated by the neurohormonal restructuring of the female body are natural. Therefore, it is extremely difficult to predict the reactions of immunity and tissues to allergens and the course of hay fever, as well as to talk in advance about how its exacerbation will affect gestation, mother and baby. It is possible that hay fever does not manifest itself against the background of preventive measures taken in advance, and if symptoms occur, they will in no way affect the general condition of the future mother and baby in her womb.
But it often happens that against the background of pregnancy, allergic reactions become heavier, become brighter and more pronounced, perhaps the first manifestation of hay fever even in those mothers who were not previously familiar with it. So, the effect of progesterone on the mucous membranes can be quite pronounced, which will lead to more severe congestion and prolonged runny nose. Dangerous for expectant mothers during the spring and summer allergies can become not only plants (more precisely, their pollen), but plants that are eaten because of the risk of cross-reactions.
What are the manifestations of pollinosis in pregnant women?
General signs of hay fever during pregnancy as a whole do not differ from those in all other groups of patients. The severity of the manifestations will be determined by the doctor, based on existing complaints and an objective assessment of the manifestations externally, these analyzes. But the moderate to severe and severe course of hay fever for pregnant women will be one of the indications for hospitalization in a hospital and treatment under the supervision of a doctor.
Manifestations of hay fever during pregnancy:
- The most common variant of hay fever is a runny nose (more correctly, allergic rhinitis), which forms most often. But discharge from the nose with it is not at all mandatory, it can be a sharp swelling of the mucous membranes and severe congestion that interferes with normal breathing, as well as swelling of the paranasal tissues, burning of the mucous membranes, itching and sneezing, and discomfort in the throat.
- Eye lesions are expressed in lacrimation, redness of the swelling of the eyelids, itching of the eyes. Typically, redness and injection of the white coat of the eyes, the appearance of blood vessels, which makes the eyes look tearful and swollen. These are signs of allergic conjunctivitis. In the mornings, a woman may form crusts on the eyelashes, leading to gluing of the eyelids between each other, during the day when the bright light comes out, there is soreness and increased lacrimation, reflexive squinting of the eyes.
- Skin lesions in the form of local urticaria – the formation of itchy blisters, resembling nettle burns, forming quickly, then disappearing and re-emerging in other places. If it occupies vast areas of the body, they can merge into uniform fields, form blisters with watery contents. Manifestations of urticaria lead to malaise, burning and itching of the skin, scratching along its surface, which threatens with a secondary infection. The transition of urticaria to angioedema or shock is possible, with a worsening of the general condition.
- Quincke’s edema (angioedema) is formed in areas with loose underlying subcutaneous tissue – in the face, neck, genital area. The most dangerous variant of this form of allergy will be laryngeal edema with the formation of false croup. With it, due to compression of the lumen of the larynx by edematous tissues, which is very flexible, the lumen of the respiratory throat is blocked, which leads to breathing problems, up to complete asphyxiation.
- The most rare and most dangerous manifestation of allergies for both mother and fetus is anaphylactic shock, which occurs as a reaction to allergens. With hay fever, it is rare, but requires urgent measures. Its symptoms are malaise, impaired consciousness, a sharp decrease in pressure, which can threaten coma and hypoxia of the brain.
HOW DOES POLLINOSIS DURING PREGNANCY ON THE Fetus?
Changes in the immune system that occur in the mother’s body do not directly affect the fetus and its development. It is fenced off by the forming placenta and has its own blood circulation, allergens from the mother’s body do not reach him. It is also reliably protected from antibodies (protein molecules that neutralize allergens) and biologically active substances that are synthesized in response to immune reactions and trigger allergies. But indirectly, allergic reactions can still affect the fetus.
So, a woman on the background of allergies in the period of her exacerbation is more worried, suffering from unpleasant symptoms, discomfort and itching, she has problems with sleep and appetite. This negatively affects the fetus. Also from her, by inheritance, the baby can become prone to certain types of reactions, including serious ones. Well, it is natural that severe allergy symptoms – hypoxia due to breathing disorders, itchy skin, decreased pressure also lead to circulatory disorders and oxygen delivery to the fetus, increase in his level of stress hormones, which violates his condition.
Chronic hypoxia threatens the fetus with intrauterine growth retardation, the birth of a physically weakened child, with functional deviations of the nervous system.
WHAT TO TREAT POLLINOSIS IN PREGNANCY?
Often when disconnecting with an allergen against the background of mild reactions, only simple preventive measures are enough. It is important to exclude the allergen itself, as well as those factors that can become additional trigger stimuli. All recommendations are important and strictly binding, they often work much better and more effective than drugs, and most importantly – they are safe during gestation! It is important to pay attention to food, living conditions, staying on the street and general events.
The most important rule – you can not treat hay fever with the usual drugs that were used before pregnancy, even if they helped well. During the period of gestation, especially during the first trimester, drugs can extremely negatively affect the development of the fetus and the fetus, the laying of the placenta. It is worth refusing not only to take the drugs inside, but also from local forms – part of the drug is absorbed into the blood.
All drugs, if you can’t do without them, are prescribed only by a doctor, and in some cases, pollinosis relief is carried out only in a hospital setting.
At the slightest sign of hay fever, it is important to consult a doctor, condemning preventive and non-drug preventive measures with it. If it is impossible without them, then let the doctor select the most safe drugs in terms of time, as well as their individual dosages and regimen. It is important to understand that allergens do not cross the placenta, but many medications make it easy, and can harm the fetus very significantly.
Mild allergies are treated without medication, and in severe chronic types of hay fever, including atopic bronchial asthma, basic therapy is indicated that is compatible with gestation and safe for the fetus and mother. As the period increases, treatment correction will often be required, for which planned hospitalization may be necessary.
MEDICINES, VITAMINS PREGNANT WOMEN WITH POLLINOSIS
Since the beginning of pregnancy, many women have been prescribed multivitamin preparations, nutritional supplements, and certain medications, including herbal ones. They should be reported to the doctor to exclude options for cross-allergy to them and weighting against the background of this course of hay fever. Therefore, the need for taking certain drugs in a woman with hay fever is accepted only by a doctor, even if it is banal vitamins, herbal teas or drinks. Sometimes with the presence of components similar to pollen compounds, they can provoke allergic reactions.
NUTRITION OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH POLLINOSIS
With a predisposition to allergies or against the background of hay fever, even without exacerbation, it is necessary to follow a special diet, hypoallergenic, when bearing a pregnancy. This is necessary not only to reduce the overall allergenic load on the body, but also to prevent possible cross-reactions with food, which are possible with hay fever. Some foods, especially those of plant origin, have a similar antigenic composition to plants that produce pollen, which causes the immune system to also negatively affect foods. Symptoms of hay fever may worsen, complemented by others.
It is also worth carefully checking your diet for the content of highly allergenic products in them. Against the background of pregnancy and allergies, it is worthwhile to exclude from the diet some varieties of fish, honey and bee products, chocolate and an excess of citrus fruits and bright berries. It is important to abandon foods rich in food chemistry, especially with dyes of bright, unnatural colors.
Against the background of hay fever, which is exacerbated, it is impossible to use various fruits related to stone fruit or pome fruit due to cross-allergy. So, at the time of exacerbation, it is worth abandoning plums, pears or apples, raw potatoes and carrots, apricots, doggies. It is important to categorically exclude honey and all spices and spices from the diet.
CHANGES IN LIFE IN POLLINOSIS OF PREGNANT WOMEN
In order to create comfortable living conditions and reduce the number of allergens, it is important to constantly carry out wet cleaning, constantly dusting and thoroughly washing the floors. It is necessary to ventilate the apartment at night and earlier in the morning, since during the day the concentration of allergens is maximum in the air and can get into rooms. The bulk of the dust is accumulated by interior elements – upholstered furniture, carpets, curtains, it is important to monitor their cleanliness, use hypoallergenic covers, or refuse part of such furniture.
Bed linen, especially a pillow with a blanket, should be made of hypoallergenic synthetic fibers, so as not to provoke bouts of hay fever at night. Pillowcases change often, washing them in hot water and ironing. All bedding with feather and down should strictly be replaced only with artificial hypoallergenic materials.
It is important to carefully treat any substances of a chemical nature – cosmetics, cleaning products, perfumes. It is important in the presence of hay fever to refuse sharply smelling or containing plant components products. All must be hypoallergenic and safe. Washed things are dried only at home in closed rooms, their drying on the street or on the balcony is unacceptable. Humidifier and air purifier will help to improve the climate in the rooms
WALKS WITH POLLINOSIS, OUTDOOR
The pregnant woman will not be able to sit locked up during the entire dangerous season, so if there is hay fever, she will sometimes need to go out on certain matters and take walks in the air. It is important to carefully and carefully approach the selection of walking places, so that there the concentrations of the potential allergen are minimal.
In park and forest areas, oxygen concentration is high, but the risk of encountering pollen is also high, and exacerbation is possible.
Pollen is blown by the wind for several kilometers from the main focus, so it’s easier to walk in residential areas, away from roads and parks. Pollen begins to stand out from early spring until the end of summer, so it will not work to isolate itself completely at this time, it is important to know your specific allergens and adhere to certain rules at the peak of their flowering. Pollen is less in the city, especially in areas where there is little greenery and grass, lawns and parks, it is safer to go out.
The maximum pollen in the air – on dry days and in the evenings, when the dust raised hundreds of feet. Go out for a walk in the morning, until 10 o’clock. The ideal time is after rain, when pollen is nailed with water. Avoid places where trees grow, even in the city, after a walk at home you need to rinse your nose, change clothes and take a shower. For a walk you need sunglasses, a headscarf on your hair, and if the risk of contact with pollen is great – also a medical mask.
Do not wear walking clothes at home, put them in a closed closet, or wash immediately. When going outside, you can use special nasal sprays that wash away allergens or create a protective film, like a barrier against allergens.
For allergy sufferers with severe forms, special filter masks for the mouth and nose are sold today. They are individual, protect against allergens due to the fine filter system.