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Active Ingredient: Naltrexone hydrochloride.
Indications for use:
👉Opioid addiction (as an auxiliary drug after the withdrawal of opioid analgesics);
👉Alcoholism (as part of a combination treatment).
Other names for this medication:
Nal trex own, Naltrexone oral.
Release form and composition
Dosage forms of Naltrexone:
Capsules: gelatinous with a white body and a dark green cap; contents – white or almost white powder (10 each in a blister pack; 2 or 5 packs in a carton; 100, 200 or 300 packs in a carton (for hospitals));
Tablets (10 pieces each in blister packs; 1, 2 or 5 packs in a cardboard box; 100, 200 or 300 packs in a cardboard box (for hospitals)). Active substance: naltrexone hydrochloride – 50 mg in 1 capsule / tablet.
Capsules: lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate;
Tablets: potato starch, low molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone medical (povidone), milk sugar (lactose), aerosil (colloidal silicon dioxide), magnesium stearate, crospovidone; The composition of the capsule shell: titanium dioxide 1% and 2%, gelatin, dye indigo carmine, dye iron oxide yellow.
☞ Withdrawal syndrome;
☞ Taking opiates;
☞ Liver failure;
☞ Acute hepatitis;
☞ A positive test for the presence of opioids in the urine;
☞ Age to 18 years;
☞ Period of breastfeeding;
☞ Hypersensitivity to the components of the product.
Mode of application
Treatment for opioid addiction. The phase of introduction to the course of therapy with naltrexone.
Treatment with naltrexone is prescribed after the patient refrains from taking opioids for 7-10 days (in the absence of withdrawal symptoms).
Abstinence from the use of opioids is identified by indicators of laboratory tests of urine for the content of opioids. Treatment begins with a negative provocative test with 0.5 g of naltrexone . Description of the naltrexone test: the patient must be administered 0.2-0.4 mg of naltrexone intravenously for 5 minutes. or as an injection subcutaneously or intramuscularly. If there is no reaction to the administration of naloxone within 15-30 minutes, a second dose of 0.4 mg intravenously or 0.4-0.8 mg subcutaneously is administered and the reaction is monitored. The test is considered positive with severe mydriasis, a change in affect from complacently-drowsy to dysphoric, behavioral disorders, the appearance of signs of opium withdrawal. A naloxone test is not performed in patients with withdrawal symptoms and in the detection of opioids in the urine. The naloxone test can be repeated after 24 hours. Treatment with naltrexone is begun with caution, gradually increasing the dose. The contents of the capsule are dissolved in 50 ml of water. Initially, 25 mg of naltrexone is prescribed orally (contained in 25 ml of the stock solution). The doctor should monitor the act of swallowing the drug solution. Maintenance therapy with naltrexone. The next day after the initial dose is administered, 50 mg of naltrexone is started every 24 hours (the use of naltrexone at the indicated dose is sufficient to block the effects of parenteral opioids, for example, 25 mg of heroin injected intravenously). 100 mg of naltrexone is prescribed every 2 days or 150 mg every 3 days. Alcoholism treatment As part of combination therapy. Daily intake of 50 mg of naltrexone, the minimum course is 3 months. Treatment should be part of an appropriate alcohol dependence elimination program. Throughout the course of treatment, it is necessary to monitor adherence to all components of the treatment of alcoholism that affect a favorable outcome. Medication is recommended to be accompanied by a course of psychotherapy.
The criteria for selecting patients for the treatment of alcoholism are:
1) a positive attitude towards treatment;
2) the willingness to abandon the use of alcohol (psychoactive substances);
3) participation in rehabilitation programs;
4) the beginning of a healthy lifestyle after the end of the course of treatment.
Naltrexone is a moderately safe drug. According to studies, even large doses do not cause serious symptoms. There is evidence of a clinical study during which patients took 800 mg per day of naltrexone for a week without signs of intoxication.
If intoxication is suspected, symptomatic treatment should be prescribed.
At the preclinical study stage, with repeated administration of naltrexone at a dose of 100 mg / kg exceeding the maximum daily dose for treating a person by approximately 35 times, no significant changes were found in hematological and biochemical parameters of blood, as well as in the structure of internal organs. Naltrexone also has no local irritant effect.
Digestive system: abdominal pain, dry mouth, nausea and / or vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, gastrointestinal upset, frequent bowel movements, flatulence, anorexia, taste change, decreased / increased appetite, erosive and ulcerative defects of the gastrointestinal tract, increased activity of liver enzymes, increased symptoms of hemorrhoids;
Respiratory system: hoarseness, cough, hyperemia of the vessels of the nasal cavity (nasal congestion), bronchial obstruction, sneezing, rhinorrhea, shortness of breath, nosebleeds, difficulty breathing, dry throat, increased sputum mucosa, pharyngitis (including streptococcal), sinusitis, nasopharyngitis;
Nervous system and sensory organs: nightmares, fatigue, nervousness, general weakness, restless sleep, dizziness, headache, blurred visual perception, hallucinations, confusion, drowsiness, irritability, fainting, depression of the central nervous system, disorientation, congestion and ringing ears, photophobia, burning sensation and pain in the eyes;
Cardiovascular system and hemopoietic system: chest pain, nonspecific changes in the electrocardiogram, increased blood pressure, tachycardia, palpitations, lymphocytosis, phlebitis;
Genitourinary system: increased urination, discomfort during urination, edema syndrome (swelling of the legs, feet, fingers, face), sexual disorders in men (decreased potency, delayed ejaculation);
Musculoskeletal system: arthritis, stiffness in joints, back pain, pain in joints / limbs, spasm and stiffness of muscles, muscle pain, muscle twitching;
Allergic reactions: skin rash, itching, flushing of the skin (including flushing of the face);
Other: decrease or increase in body weight, thirst, chills, fever, lymphadenopathy (including cervical adenitis), increased sweating.
Before starting the Naltrexone course, you need to make sure that there is no subclinical liver failure, during the period of treatment it is necessary to periodically monitor the level of transaminases. You can not use the drug with drugs that have a hepatotoxic effect.
In order to avoid the development of acute withdrawal symptoms, patients should stop using opioids and drugs containing them at least 7–10 days before the start of therapy, and be sure to conduct a provocative test with naltrexone . If these requirements are not observed, the development of withdrawal symptoms can occur 5 minutes after taking the drug and continue for 48 hours.
Before surgery, in which opioid analgesics will be used, the drug must be canceled at least 48 hours before the operation.
The use of Naltrexone is ineffective in the treatment of cocaine as well as non-opioid drug dependence.
When observing a persistent decrease in appetite and progressive weight loss, therapy should be discontinued. In case of emergency analgesia with narcotic drugs, it is necessary to prescribe opiates with extreme caution in an increased dosage (to overcome antagonism), since this will cause a deeper and longer respiratory depression.
Patients should know what is needed:
- To inform, on a mandatory basis, medical personnel about treatment with naltrexone when seeking medical help;
- Stop taking the medicine and consult a doctor if you observe yellowing of the sclera, darkening of urine and abdominal pain.
It is required to take into account that there will be no effect from the independent use of heroin and other drugs in small doses, and a further increase in the doses of narcotic drugs will lead to death (respiratory arrest).
Naltrexone reduces the effectiveness of drugs that include opioids (analgesics, antitussive drugs). In combination with hepatotoxic drugs, the threat of liver damage is aggravated (mutually). When combined with thioridazine, the risk of developing increased drowsiness or lethargy increases. Terms and conditions of storage Store in a place protected from moisture and light, out of the reach of children, at a temperature not exceeding 25 ° C.
Shelf life is 36 months.